zlib 1.2.8 Manual


Contents

  1. Prologue
  2. Version
  3. Introduction
  4. Stream Data Structures
  5. Structures Usage
  6. Constants
  7. Basic Functions
  8. Advanced Functions
  9. Utility Functions
  10. gzip File Access Functions
  11. Checksum Functions
  12. Undocumented Functions

Prologue

zlib general purpose compression library
version 1.2.8, April 28th, 2013

Copyright (C) 1995-2013 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler

This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages arising from the use of this software.

Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions:

  1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be appreciated but is not required.
  2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be misrepresented as being the original software.
  3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.
Jean-loup Gailly       Mark Adler

The data format used by the zlib library is described by RFCs (Request for Comments) 1950 to 1952 in the files rfc1950 (zlib format), rfc1951 (deflate format) and rfc1952 (gzip format).

Version

#define ZLIB_VERSION "1.2.8"
#define ZLIB_VERNUM 0x1280

Introduction

The zlib compression library provides in-memory compression and decompression functions, including integrity checks of the uncompressed data. This version of the library supports only one compression method (deflation) but other algorithms will be added later and will have the same stream interface.

Compression can be done in a single step if the buffers are large enough (for example if an input file is mmap'ed), or can be done by repeated calls of the compression function. In the latter case, the application must provide more input and/or consume the output (providing more output space) before each call.

The compressed data format used by default by the in-memory functions is the zlib format, which is a zlib wrapper documented in RFC 1950, wrapped around a deflate stream, which is itself documented in RFC 1951.

The library also supports reading and writing files in gzip (.gz) format with an interface similar to that of stdio using the functions that start with "gz". The gzip format is different from the zlib format. gzip is a gzip wrapper, documented in RFC 1952, wrapped around a deflate stream.

This library can optionally read and write gzip streams in memory as well.

The zlib format was designed to be compact and fast for use in memory and on communications channels. The gzip format was designed for single- file compression on file systems, has a larger header than zlib to maintain directory information, and uses a different, slower check method than zlib.

The library does not install any signal handler. The decoder checks the consistency of the compressed data, so the library should never crash even in case of corrupted input.

Stream Data Structures

typedef voidpf (*alloc_func) OF((voidpf opaque, uInt items, uInt size));
typedef void   (*free_func)  OF((voidpf opaque, voidpf address));

struct internal_state;

typedef struct z_stream_s {
    z_const Bytef *next_in;     /* next input byte */
    uInt     avail_in;  /* number of bytes available at next_in */
    uLong    total_in;  /* total number of input bytes read so far */

    Bytef    *next_out; /* next output byte should be put there */
    uInt     avail_out; /* remaining free space at next_out */
    uLong    total_out; /* total number of bytes output so far */

    z_const char *msg;  /* last error message, NULL if no error */
    struct internal_state FAR *state; /* not visible by applications */

    alloc_func zalloc;  /* used to allocate the internal state */
    free_func  zfree;   /* used to free the internal state */
    voidpf     opaque;  /* private data object passed to zalloc and zfree */

    int     data_type;  /* best guess about the data type: binary or text */
    uLong   adler;      /* adler32 value of the uncompressed data */
    uLong   reserved;   /* reserved for future use */
} z_stream;

typedef z_stream FAR *z_streamp;

gzip header information passed to and from zlib routines. See RFC 1952 for more details on the meanings of these fields.

typedef struct gz_header_s {
    int     text;       /* true if compressed data believed to be text */
    uLong   time;       /* modification time */
    int     xflags;     /* extra flags (not used when writing a gzip file) */
    int     os;         /* operating system */
    Bytef   *extra;     /* pointer to extra field or Z_NULL if none */
    uInt    extra_len;  /* extra field length (valid if extra != Z_NULL) */
    uInt    extra_max;  /* space at extra (only when reading header) */
    Bytef   *name;      /* pointer to zero-terminated file name or Z_NULL */
    uInt    name_max;   /* space at name (only when reading header) */
    Bytef   *comment;   /* pointer to zero-terminated comment or Z_NULL */
    uInt    comm_max;   /* space at comment (only when reading header) */
    int     hcrc;       /* true if there was or will be a header crc */
    int     done;       /* true when done reading gzip header (not used
                           when writing a gzip file) */
} gz_header;

typedef gz_header FAR *gz_headerp;

Structures Usage

The application must update next_in and avail_in when avail_in has dropped to zero. It must update next_out and avail_out when avail_out has dropped to zero. The application must initialize zalloc, zfree and opaque before calling the init function. All other fields are set by the compression library and must not be updated by the application.

The opaque value provided by the application will be passed as the first parameter for calls of zalloc and zfree. This can be useful for custom memory management. The compression library attaches no meaning to the opaque value.

zalloc must return Z_NULL if there is not enough memory for the object. If zlib is used in a multi-threaded application, zalloc and zfree must be thread safe.

On 16-bit systems, the functions zalloc and zfree must be able to allocate exactly 65536 bytes, but will not be required to allocate more than this if the symbol MAXSEG_64K is defined (see zconf.h). WARNING: On MSDOS, pointers returned by zalloc for objects of exactly 65536 bytes must have their offset normalized to zero. The default allocation function provided by this library ensures this (see zutil.c). To reduce memory requirements and avoid any allocation of 64K objects, at the expense of compression ratio, compile the library with -DMAX_WBITS=14 (see zconf.h).

The fields total_in and total_out can be used for statistics or progress reports. After compression, total_in holds the total size of the uncompressed data and may be saved for use in the decompressor (particularly if the decompressor wants to decompress everything in a single step).

Constants

Allowed flush values; see deflate() and inflate() below for details.
#define Z_NO_FLUSH      0
#define Z_PARTIAL_FLUSH 1
#define Z_SYNC_FLUSH    2
#define Z_FULL_FLUSH    3
#define Z_FINISH        4
#define Z_BLOCK         5
#define Z_TREES         6
Return codes for the compression/decompression functions. Negative values are errors, positive values are used for special but normal events.
#define Z_OK            0
#define Z_STREAM_END    1
#define Z_NEED_DICT     2
#define Z_ERRNO        (-1)
#define Z_STREAM_ERROR (-2)
#define Z_DATA_ERROR   (-3)
#define Z_MEM_ERROR    (-4)
#define Z_BUF_ERROR    (-5)
#define Z_VERSION_ERROR (-6)
Compression levels.
#define Z_NO_COMPRESSION         0
#define Z_BEST_SPEED             1
#define Z_BEST_COMPRESSION       9
#define Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION  (-1)
Compression strategy — see deflateInit2() below for details.
#define Z_FILTERED            1
#define Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY        2
#define Z_RLE                 3
#define Z_FIXED               4
#define Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY    0
Possible values of the data_type field (though see inflate()).
#define Z_BINARY   0
#define Z_TEXT     1
#define Z_ASCII    Z_TEXT   /* for compatibility with 1.2.2 and earlier */
#define Z_UNKNOWN  2
The deflate compression method (the only one supported in this version).
#define Z_DEFLATED   8
For initializing zalloc, zfree, opaque.
#define Z_NULL  0
For compatibility with versions < 1.0.2.
#define zlib_version zlibVersion()

Basic Functions

ZEXTERN const char * ZEXPORT zlibVersion OF((void));
The application can compare zlibVersion and ZLIB_VERSION for consistency. If the first character differs, the library code actually used is not compatible with the zlib.h header file used by the application. This check is automatically made by deflateInit and inflateInit.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateInit OF((z_streamp strm, int level));
Initializes the internal stream state for compression. The fields zalloc, zfree and opaque must be initialized before by the caller. If zalloc and zfree are set to Z_NULL, deflateInit updates them to use default allocation functions.

The compression level must be Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION, or between 0 and 9: 1 gives best speed, 9 gives best compression, 0 gives no compression at all (the input data is simply copied a block at a time). Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION requests a default compromise between speed and compression (currently equivalent to level 6).

deflateInit returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_STREAM_ERROR if level is not a valid compression level, Z_VERSION_ERROR if the zlib library version (zlib_version) is incompatible with the version assumed by the caller (ZLIB_VERSION). msg is set to null if there is no error message. deflateInit does not perform any compression: this will be done by deflate().


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflate OF((z_streamp strm, int flush));
deflate compresses as much data as possible, and stops when the input buffer becomes empty or the output buffer becomes full. It may introduce some output latency (reading input without producing any output) except when forced to flush.

The detailed semantics are as follows. deflate performs one or both of the following actions:

Before the call of deflate(), the application should ensure that at least one of the actions is possible, by providing more input and/or consuming more output, and updating avail_in or avail_out accordingly; avail_out should never be zero before the call. The application can consume the compressed output when it wants, for example when the output buffer is full (avail_out == 0), or after each call of deflate(). If deflate returns Z_OK and with zero avail_out, it must be called again after making room in the output buffer because there might be more output pending.

Normally the parameter flush is set to Z_NO_FLUSH, which allows deflate to decide how much data to accumulate before producing output, in order to maximize compression.

If the parameter flush is set to Z_SYNC_FLUSH, all pending output is flushed to the output buffer and the output is aligned on a byte boundary, so that the decompressor can get all input data available so far. (In particular avail_in is zero after the call if enough output space has been provided before the call.) Flushing may degrade compression for some compression algorithms and so it should be used only when necessary. This completes the current deflate block and follows it with an empty stored block that is three bits plus filler bits to the next byte, followed by four bytes (00 00 ff ff).

If flush is set to Z_PARTIAL_FLUSH, all pending output is flushed to the output buffer, but the output is not aligned to a byte boundary. All of the input data so far will be available to the decompressor, as for Z_SYNC_FLUSH. This completes the current deflate block and follows it with an empty fixed codes block that is 10 bits long. This assures that enough bytes are output in order for the decompressor to finish the block before the empty fixed code block.

If flush is set to Z_BLOCK, a deflate block is completed and emitted, as for Z_SYNC_FLUSH, but the output is not aligned on a byte boundary, and up to seven bits of the current block are held to be written as the next byte after the next deflate block is completed. In this case, the decompressor may not be provided enough bits at this point in order to complete decompression of the data provided so far to the compressor. It may need to wait for the next block to be emitted. This is for advanced applications that need to control the emission of deflate blocks.

If flush is set to Z_FULL_FLUSH, all output is flushed as with Z_SYNC_FLUSH, and the compression state is reset so that decompression can restart from this point if previous compressed data has been damaged or if random access is desired. Using Z_FULL_FLUSH too often can seriously degrade compression.

If deflate returns with avail_out == 0, this function must be called again with the same value of the flush parameter and more output space (updated avail_out), until the flush is complete (deflate returns with non-zero avail_out). In the case of a Z_FULL_FLUSH or Z_SYNC_FLUSH, make sure that avail_out is greater than six to avoid repeated flush markers due to avail_out == 0 on return.

If the parameter flush is set to Z_FINISH, pending input is processed, pending output is flushed and deflate returns with Z_STREAM_END if there was enough output space; if deflate returns with Z_OK, this function must be called again with Z_FINISH and more output space (updated avail_out) but no more input data, until it returns with Z_STREAM_END or an error. After deflate has returned Z_STREAM_END, the only possible operations on the stream are deflateReset or deflateEnd.

Z_FINISH can be used immediately after deflateInit if all the compression is to be done in a single step. In this case, avail_out must be at least value returned by deflateBound (see below). Then deflate is guaranteed to return Z_STREAM_END. If not enough output space is provided, deflate will not return Z_STREAM_END, and it must be called again as described above.

deflate() sets strm->adler to the adler32 checksum of all input read so far (that is, total_in bytes).

deflate() may update strm->data_type if it can make a good guess about the input data type (Z_BINARY or Z_TEXT). In doubt, the data is considered binary. This field is only for information purposes and does not affect the compression algorithm in any manner.

deflate() returns Z_OK if some progress has been made (more input processed or more output produced), Z_STREAM_END if all input has been consumed and all output has been produced (only when flush is set to Z_FINISH), Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream state was inconsistent (for example if next_in or next_out was NULL), Z_BUF_ERROR if no progress is possible (for example avail_in or avail_out was zero). Note that Z_BUF_ERROR is not fatal, and deflate() can be called again with more input and more output space to continue compressing.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateEnd OF((z_streamp strm));
All dynamically allocated data structures for this stream are freed. This function discards any unprocessed input and does not flush any pending output.

deflateEnd returns Z_OK if success, Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream state was inconsistent, Z_DATA_ERROR if the stream was freed prematurely (some input or output was discarded). In the error case, msg may be set but then points to a static string (which must not be deallocated).


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateInit OF((z_streamp strm));
Initializes the internal stream state for decompression. The fields next_in, avail_in, zalloc, zfree and opaque must be initialized before by the caller. If next_in is not Z_NULL and avail_in is large enough (the exact value depends on the compression method), inflateInit determines the compression method from the zlib header and allocates all data structures accordingly; otherwise the allocation will be deferred to the first call of inflate. If zalloc and zfree are set to Z_NULL, inflateInit updates them to use default allocation functions.

inflateInit returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_VERSION_ERROR if the zlib library version is incompatible with the version assumed by the caller, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the parameters are invalid, such as a null pointer to the structure. msg is set to null if there is no error message. inflateInit does not perform any decompression apart from possibly reading the zlib header if present: actual decompression will be done by inflate(). (So next_in and avail_in may be modified, but next_out and avail_out are unused and unchanged.) The current implementation of inflateInit() does not process any header information -- that is deferred until inflate() is called.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflate OF((z_streamp strm, int flush));
inflate decompresses as much data as possible, and stops when the input buffer becomes empty or the output buffer becomes full. It may introduce some output latency (reading input without producing any output) except when forced to flush.

The detailed semantics are as follows. inflate performs one or both of the following actions:

Before the call of inflate(), the application should ensure that at least one of the actions is possible, by providing more input and/or consuming more output, and updating the next_* and avail_* values accordingly. The application can consume the uncompressed output when it wants, for example when the output buffer is full (avail_out == 0), or after each call of inflate(). If inflate returns Z_OK and with zero avail_out, it must be called again after making room in the output buffer because there might be more output pending.

The flush parameter of inflate() can be Z_NO_FLUSH, Z_SYNC_FLUSH, Z_FINISH, Z_BLOCK, or Z_TREES. Z_SYNC_FLUSH requests that inflate() flush as much output as possible to the output buffer. Z_BLOCK requests that inflate() stop if and when it gets to the next deflate block boundary. When decoding the zlib or gzip format, this will cause inflate() to return immediately after the header and before the first block. When doing a raw inflate, inflate() will go ahead and process the first block, and will return when it gets to the end of that block, or when it runs out of data.

The Z_BLOCK option assists in appending to or combining deflate streams. Also to assist in this, on return inflate() will set strm->data_type to the number of unused bits in the last byte taken from strm->next_in, plus 64 if inflate() is currently decoding the last block in the deflate stream, plus 128 if inflate() returned immediately after decoding an end-of-block code or decoding the complete header up to just before the first byte of the deflate stream. The end-of-block will not be indicated until all of the uncompressed data from that block has been written to strm->next_out. The number of unused bits may in general be greater than seven, except when bit 7 of data_type is set, in which case the number of unused bits will be less than eight. data_type is set as noted here every time inflate() returns for all flush options, and so can be used to determine the amount of currently consumed input in bits.

The Z_TREES option behaves as Z_BLOCK does, but it also returns when the end of each deflate block header is reached, before any actual data in that block is decoded. This allows the caller to determine the length of the deflate block header for later use in random access within a deflate block. 256 is added to the value of strm->data_type when inflate() returns immediately after reaching the end of the deflate block header.

inflate() should normally be called until it returns Z_STREAM_END or an error. However if all decompression is to be performed in a single step (a single call of inflate), the parameter flush should be set to Z_FINISH. In this case all pending input is processed and all pending output is flushed; avail_out must be large enough to hold all of the uncompressed data for the operation to complete. (The size of the uncompressed data may have been saved by the compressor for this purpose.) The use of Z_FINISH is not required to perform an inflation in one step. However it may be used to inform inflate that a faster approach can be used for the single inflate() call. Z_FINISH also informs inflate to not maintain a sliding window if the stream completes, which reduces inflate's memory footprint. If the stream does not complete, either because not all of the stream is provided or not enough output space is provided, then a sliding window will be allocated and inflate() can be called again to continue the operation as if Z_NO_FLUSH had been used.

In this implementation, inflate() always flushes as much output as possible to the output buffer, and always uses the faster approach on the first call. So the effects of the flush parameter in this implementation are on the return value of inflate() as noted below, when inflate() returns early when Z_BLOCK or Z_TREES is used, and when inflate() avoids the allocation of memory for a sliding window when Z_FINISH is used.

If a preset dictionary is needed after this call (see inflateSetDictionary below), inflate sets strm->adler to the Adler-32 checksum of the dictionary chosen by the compressor and returns Z_NEED_DICT; otherwise it sets strm->adler to the Adler-32 checksum of all output produced so far (that is, total_out bytes) and returns Z_OK, Z_STREAM_END or an error code as described below. At the end of the stream, inflate() checks that its computed adler32 checksum is equal to that saved by the compressor and returns Z_STREAM_END only if the checksum is correct.

inflate() will decompress and check either zlib-wrapped or gzip-wrapped deflate data. The header type is detected automatically, if requested when initializing with inflateInit2(). Any information contained in the gzip header is not retained, so applications that need that information should instead use raw inflate, see inflateInit2() below, or inflateBack() and perform their own processing of the gzip header and trailer. When processing gzip-wrapped deflate data, strm->adler32 is set to the CRC-32 of the output producted so far. The CRC-32 is checked against the gzip trailer.

inflate() returns Z_OK if some progress has been made (more input processed or more output produced), Z_STREAM_END if the end of the compressed data has been reached and all uncompressed output has been produced, Z_NEED_DICT if a preset dictionary is needed at this point, Z_DATA_ERROR if the input data was corrupted (input stream not conforming to the zlib format or incorrect check value), Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream structure was inconsistent (for example if next_in or next_out was NULL), Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_BUF_ERROR if no progress is possible or if there was not enough room in the output buffer when Z_FINISH is used. Note that Z_BUF_ERROR is not fatal, and inflate() can be called again with more input and more output space to continue decompressing. If Z_DATA_ERROR is returned, the application may then call inflateSync() to look for a good compression block if a partial recovery of the data is desired.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateEnd OF((z_streamp strm));
All dynamically allocated data structures for this stream are freed. This function discards any unprocessed input and does not flush any pending output.

inflateEnd returns Z_OK if success, Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream state was inconsistent. In the error case, msg may be set but then points to a static string (which must not be deallocated).

Advanced Functions

The following functions are needed only in some special applications.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateInit2 OF((z_streamp strm,
                                     int  level,
                                     int  method,
                                     int  windowBits,
                                     int  memLevel,
                                     int  strategy));
This is another version of deflateInit with more compression options. The fields next_in, zalloc, zfree and opaque must be initialized before by the caller.

The method parameter is the compression method. It must be Z_DEFLATED in this version of the library.

The windowBits parameter is the base two logarithm of the window size (the size of the history buffer). It should be in the range 8..15 for this version of the library. Larger values of this parameter result in better compression at the expense of memory usage. The default value is 15 if deflateInit is used instead.

windowBits can also be –8..–15 for raw deflate. In this case, -windowBits determines the window size. deflate() will then generate raw deflate data with no zlib header or trailer, and will not compute an adler32 check value.

windowBits can also be greater than 15 for optional gzip encoding. Add 16 to windowBits to write a simple gzip header and trailer around the compressed data instead of a zlib wrapper. The gzip header will have no file name, no extra data, no comment, no modification time (set to zero), no header crc, and the operating system will be set to 255 (unknown). If a gzip stream is being written, strm->adler is a crc32 instead of an adler32.

The memLevel parameter specifies how much memory should be allocated for the internal compression state. memLevel=1 uses minimum memory but is slow and reduces compression ratio; memLevel=9 uses maximum memory for optimal speed. The default value is 8. See zconf.h for total memory usage as a function of windowBits and memLevel.

The strategy parameter is used to tune the compression algorithm. Use the value Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY for normal data, Z_FILTERED for data produced by a filter (or predictor), Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY to force Huffman encoding only (no string match), or Z_RLE to limit match distances to one (run-length encoding). Filtered data consists mostly of small values with a somewhat random distribution. In this case, the compression algorithm is tuned to compress them better. The effect of Z_FILTERED is to force more Huffman coding and less string matching; it is somewhat intermediate between Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY and Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY. Z_RLE is designed to be almost as fast as Z_HUFFMAN_ONLY, but give better compression for PNG image data. The strategy parameter only affects the compression ratio but not the correctness of the compressed output even if it is not set appropriately. Z_FIXED prevents the use of dynamic Huffman codes, allowing for a simpler decoder for special applications.

deflateInit2 returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_STREAM_ERROR if a parameter is invalid (such as an invalid method), or Z_VERSION_ERROR if the zlib library version (zlib_version) is incompatible with the version assumed by the caller (ZLIB_VERSION). msg is set to null if there is no error message. deflateInit2 does not perform any compression: this will be done by deflate().


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateSetDictionary OF((z_streamp strm,
                                             const Bytef *dictionary,
                                             uInt  dictLength));
Initializes the compression dictionary from the given byte sequence without producing any compressed output. This function must be called immediately after deflateInit, deflateInit2 or deflateReset, before any call of deflate. The compressor and decompressor must use exactly the same dictionary (see inflateSetDictionary). without producing any compressed output. When using the zlib format, this function must be called immediately after deflateInit, deflateInit2 or deflateReset, and before any call of deflate. When doing raw deflate, this function must be called either before any call of deflate, or immediately after the completion of a deflate block, i.e. after all input has been consumed and all output has been delivered when using any of the flush options Z_BLOCK, Z_PARTIAL_FLUSH, Z_SYNC_FLUSH, or Z_FULL_FLUSH. The compressor and decompressor must use exactly the same dictionary (see inflateSetDictionary).

The dictionary should consist of strings (byte sequences) that are likely to be encountered later in the data to be compressed, with the most commonly used strings preferably put towards the end of the dictionary. Using a dictionary is most useful when the data to be compressed is short and can be predicted with good accuracy; the data can then be compressed better than with the default empty dictionary.

Depending on the size of the compression data structures selected by deflateInit or deflateInit2, a part of the dictionary may in effect be discarded, for example if the dictionary is larger than the window size in deflate or deflate2. Thus the strings most likely to be useful should be put at the end of the dictionary, not at the front. In addition, the current implementation of deflate will use at most the window size minus 262 bytes of the provided dictionary.

Upon return of this function, strm->adler is set to the adler32 value of the dictionary; the decompressor may later use this value to determine which dictionary has been used by the compressor. (The adler32 value applies to the whole dictionary even if only a subset of the dictionary is actually used by the compressor.) If a raw deflate was requested, then the adler32 value is not computed and strm->adler is not set.

deflateSetDictionary returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if a parameter is invalid (such as NULL dictionary) or the stream state is inconsistent (for example if deflate has already been called for this stream or if not at a block boundary for raw deflate). deflateSetDictionary does not perform any compression: this will be done by deflate().


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateCopy OF((z_streamp dest,
                                    z_streamp source));
Sets the destination stream as a complete copy of the source stream.

This function can be useful when several compression strategies will be tried, for example when there are several ways of pre-processing the input data with a filter. The streams that will be discarded should then be freed by calling deflateEnd. Note that deflateCopy duplicates the internal compression state which can be quite large, so this strategy is slow and can consume lots of memory.

deflateCopy returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent (such as zalloc being NULL). msg is left unchanged in both source and destination.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateReset OF((z_streamp strm));
This function is equivalent to deflateEnd followed by deflateInit, but does not free and reallocate all the internal compression state. The stream will keep the same compression level and any other attributes that may have been set by deflateInit2.

deflateReset returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent (such as zalloc or state being NULL).


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateParams OF((z_streamp strm,
                                      int level,
                                      int strategy));
Dynamically update the compression level and compression strategy. The interpretation of level and strategy is as in deflateInit2. This can be used to switch between compression and straight copy of the input data, or to switch to a different kind of input data requiring a different strategy. If the compression level is changed, the input available so far is compressed with the old level (and may be flushed); the new level will take effect only at the next call of deflate().

Before the call of deflateParams, the stream state must be set as for a call of deflate(), since the currently available input may have to be compressed and flushed. In particular, strm->avail_out must be non-zero.

deflateParams returns Z_OK if success, Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent or if a parameter was invalid, Z_BUF_ERROR if strm->avail_out was zero.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateTune OF((z_streamp strm,
                                    int good_length,
                                    int max_lazy,
                                    int nice_length,
                                    int max_chain));
Fine tune deflate's internal compression parameters. This should only be used by someone who understands the algorithm used by zlib's deflate for searching for the best matching string, and even then only by the most fanatic optimizer trying to squeeze out the last compressed bit for their specific input data. Read the deflate.c source code for the meaning of the max_lazy, good_length, nice_length, and max_chain parameters.

deflateTune() can be called after deflateInit() or deflateInit2(), and returns Z_OK on success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR for an invalid deflate stream.


ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT deflateBound OF((z_streamp strm,
                                       uLong sourceLen));
deflateBound() returns an upper bound on the compressed size after deflation of sourceLen bytes. It must be called after deflateInit() or deflateInit2(). This would be used to allocate an output buffer for deflation in a single pass, and so would be called before deflate(). If that first deflate() call is provided the sourceLen input bytes, an output buffer allocated to the size returned by deflateBound(), and the flush value Z_FINISH, then deflate() is guaranteed to return Z_STREAM_END. Note that it is possible for the compressed size to be larger than the value returned by deflateBound() if flush options other than Z_FINISH or Z_NO_FLUSH are used.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflatePending OF((z_streamp strm,
                                       unsigned *pending,
                                       int *bits));
deflatePending() returns the number of bytes and bits of output that have been generated, but not yet provided in the available output. The bytes not provided would be due to the available output space having being consumed. The number of bits of output not provided are between 0 and 7, where they await more bits to join them in order to fill out a full byte. If pending or bits are Z_NULL, then those values are not set.

deflatePending returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflatePrime OF((z_streamp strm,
                                     int bits,
                                     int value));
deflatePrime() inserts bits in the deflate output stream. The intent is that this function is used to start off the deflate output with the bits leftover from a previous deflate stream when appending to it. As such, this function can only be used for raw deflate, and must be used before the first deflate() call after a deflateInit2() or deflateReset(). bits must be less than or equal to 16, and that many of the least significant bits of value will be inserted in the output.

deflatePrime returns Z_OK if success, Z_BUF_ERROR if there was not enough room in the internal buffer to insert the bits, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT deflateSetHeader OF((z_streamp strm,
                                         gz_headerp head));
deflateSetHeader() provides gzip header information for when a gzip stream is requested by deflateInit2(). deflateSetHeader() may be called after deflateInit2() or deflateReset() and before the first call of deflate(). The text, time, os, extra field, name, and comment information in the provided gz_header structure are written to the gzip header (xflag is ignored — the extra flags are set according to the compression level). The caller must assure that, if not Z_NULL, name and comment are terminated with a zero byte, and that if extra is not Z_NULL, that extra_len bytes are available there. If hcrc is true, a gzip header crc is included. Note that the current versions of the command-line version of gzip (up through version 1.3.x) do not support header crc's, and will report that it is a "multi-part gzip file" and give up.

If deflateSetHeader is not used, the default gzip header has text false, the time set to zero, and os set to 255, with no extra, name, or comment fields. The gzip header is returned to the default state by deflateReset().

deflateSetHeader returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateInit2 OF((z_streamp strm,
                                     int  windowBits));
This is another version of inflateInit with an extra parameter. The fields next_in, avail_in, zalloc, zfree and opaque must be initialized before by the caller.

The windowBits parameter is the base two logarithm of the maximum window size (the size of the history buffer). It should be in the range 8..15 for this version of the library. The default value is 15 if inflateInit is used instead. windowBits must be greater than or equal to the windowBits value provided to deflateInit2() while compressing, or it must be equal to 15 if deflateInit2() was not used. If a compressed stream with a larger window size is given as input, inflate() will return with the error code Z_DATA_ERROR instead of trying to allocate a larger window.

windowBits can also be zero to request that inflate use the window size in the zlib header of the compressed stream.

windowBits can also be –8..–15 for raw inflate. In this case, -windowBits determines the window size. inflate() will then process raw deflate data, not looking for a zlib or gzip header, not generating a check value, and not looking for any check values for comparison at the end of the stream. This is for use with other formats that use the deflate compressed data format such as zip. Those formats provide their own check values. If a custom format is developed using the raw deflate format for compressed data, it is recommended that a check value such as an adler32 or a crc32 be applied to the uncompressed data as is done in the zlib, gzip, and zip formats. For most applications, the zlib format should be used as is. Note that comments above on the use in deflateInit2() applies to the magnitude of windowBits.

windowBits can also be greater than 15 for optional gzip decoding. Add 32 to windowBits to enable zlib and gzip decoding with automatic header detection, or add 16 to decode only the gzip format (the zlib format will return a Z_DATA_ERROR). If a gzip stream is being decoded, strm->adler is a crc32 instead of an adler32.

inflateInit2 returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_VERSION_ERROR if the zlib library version is incompatible with the version assumed by the caller, Z_STREAM_ERROR if a parameters are invalid, such as a null pointer to the structure. msg is set to null if there is no error message. inflateInit2 does not perform any decompression apart from reading the zlib header if present: actual decompression be done by inflate(). (So next_in and avail_in may be modified, but next_out and avail_out are unused and unchanged.) The current implementation of inflateInit2() does not process any header information -- that is deferred until inflate() is called.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateSetDictionary OF((z_streamp strm,
                                             const Bytef *dictionary,
                                             uInt  dictLength));
Initializes the decompression dictionary from the given uncompressed byte sequence. This function must be called immediately after a call of inflate, if that call returned Z_NEED_DICT. The dictionary chosen by the compressor can be determined from the adler32 value returned by that call of inflate. The compressor and decompressor must use exactly the same dictionary (see deflateSetDictionary). For raw inflate, this function can be called at any time to set the dictionary. If the provided dictionary is smaller than the window and there is already data in the window, then the provided dictionary will amend what's there. The application must insure that the dictionary that was used for compression is provided.

inflateSetDictionary returns Z_OK if success, Z_STREAM_ERROR if a parameter is invalid (such as NULL dictionary) or the stream state is inconsistent, Z_DATA_ERROR if the given dictionary doesn't match the expected one (incorrect adler32 value). inflateSetDictionary does not perform any decompression: this will be done by subsequent calls of inflate().


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateGetDictionary OF((z_streamp strm,
                                             Bytef *dictionary,
                                             uInt  *dictLength));
Returns the sliding dictionary being maintained by inflate. dictLength is set to the number of bytes in the dictionary, and that many bytes are copied to dictionary. dictionary must have enough space, where 32768 bytes is always enough. If inflateGetDictionary() is called with dictionary equal to Z_NULL, then only the dictionary length is returned, and nothing is copied. Similary, if dictLength is Z_NULL, then it is not set.

inflateGetDictionary returns Z_OK on success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream state is inconsistent.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateSync OF((z_streamp strm));
Skips invalid compressed data until a possible full flush point (see above for the description of deflate with Z_FULL_FLUSH) can be found, or until all available input is skipped. No output is provided.

inflateSync searches for a 00 00 FF FF pattern in the compressed data. All full flush points have this pattern, but not all occurrences of this pattern are full flush points.

inflateSync returns Z_OK if a possible full flush point has been found, Z_BUF_ERROR if no more input was provided, Z_DATA_ERROR if no flush point has been found, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream structure was inconsistent. In the success case, the application may save the current current value of total_in which indicates where valid compressed data was found. In the error case, the application may repeatedly call inflateSync, providing more input each time, until success or end of the input data.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateCopy OF((z_streamp dest,
                                    z_streamp source));
Sets the destination stream as a complete copy of the source stream.

This function can be useful when randomly accessing a large stream. The first pass through the stream can periodically record the inflate state, allowing restarting inflate at those points when randomly accessing the stream.

inflateCopy returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent (such as zalloc being NULL). msg is left unchanged in both source and destination.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateReset OF((z_streamp strm));
This function is equivalent to inflateEnd followed by inflateInit, but does not free and reallocate all the internal decompression state. The stream will keep attributes that may have been set by inflateInit2.

inflateReset returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent (such as zalloc or state being NULL).


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateReset2 OF((z_streamp strm,
                                      int windowBits));
This function is the same as inflateReset, but it also permits changing the wrap and window size requests. The windowBits parameter is interpreted the same as it is for inflateInit2.

inflateReset2 returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent (such as zalloc or state being Z_NULL), or if the windowBits parameter is invalid.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflatePrime OF((z_streamp strm,
                                     int bits,
                                     int value));
This function inserts bits in the inflate input stream. The intent is that this function is used to start inflating at a bit position in the middle of a byte. The provided bits will be used before any bytes are used from next_in. This function should only be used with raw inflate, and should be used before the first inflate() call after inflateInit2() or inflateReset(). bits must be less than or equal to 16, and that many of the least significant bits of value will be inserted in the input.

If bits is negative, then the input stream bit buffer is emptied. Then inflatePrime() can be called again to put bits in the buffer. This is used to clear out bits leftover after feeding inflate a block description prior to feeding inflate codes.

inflatePrime returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN long ZEXPORT inflateMark OF((z_streamp strm));
This function returns two values, one in the lower 16 bits of the return value, and the other in the remaining upper bits, obtained by shifting the return value down 16 bits. If the upper value is –1 and the lower value is zero, then inflate() is currently decoding information outside of a block. If the upper value is –1 and the lower value is non-zero, then inflate is in the middle of a stored block, with the lower value equaling the number of bytes from the input remaining to copy. If the upper value is not –1, then it is the number of bits back from the current bit position in the input of the code (literal or length/distance pair) currently being processed. In that case the lower value is the number of bytes already emitted for that code.

A code is being processed if inflate is waiting for more input to complete decoding of the code, or if it has completed decoding but is waiting for more output space to write the literal or match data.

inflateMark() is used to mark locations in the input data for random access, which may be at bit positions, and to note those cases where the output of a code may span boundaries of random access blocks. The current location in the input stream can be determined from avail_in and data_type as noted in the description for the Z_BLOCK flush parameter for inflate.

inflateMark returns the value noted above or -1 << 16 if the provided source stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateGetHeader OF((z_streamp strm,
                                         gz_headerp head));
inflateGetHeader() requests that gzip header information be stored in the provided gz_header structure. inflateGetHeader() may be called after inflateInit2() or inflateReset(), and before the first call of inflate(). As inflate() processes the gzip stream, head->done is zero until the header is completed, at which time head->done is set to one. If a zlib stream is being decoded, then head->done is set to –1 to indicate that there will be no gzip header information forthcoming. Note that Z_BLOCK can be used to force inflate() to return immediately after header processing is complete and before any actual data is decompressed.

The text, time, xflags, and os fields are filled in with the gzip header contents. hcrc is set to true if there is a header CRC. (The header CRC was valid if done is set to one.) If extra is not Z_NULL, then extra_max contains the maximum number of bytes to write to extra. Once done is true, extra_len contains the actual extra field length, and extra contains the extra field, or that field truncated if extra_max is less than extra_len. If name is not Z_NULL, then up to name_max characters are written there, terminated with a zero unless the length is greater than name_max. If comment is not Z_NULL, then up to comm_max characters are written there, terminated with a zero unless the length is greater than comm_max. When any of extra, name, or comment are not Z_NULL and the respective field is not present in the header, then that field is set to Z_NULL to signal its absence. This allows the use of deflateSetHeader() with the returned structure to duplicate the header. However if those fields are set to allocated memory, then the application will need to save those pointers elsewhere so that they can be eventually freed.

If inflateGetHeader is not used, then the header information is simply discarded. The header is always checked for validity, including the header CRC if present. inflateReset() will reset the process to discard the header information. The application would need to call inflateGetHeader() again to retrieve the header from the next gzip stream.

inflateGetHeader returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the source stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateBackInit OF((z_streamp strm, int windowBits,
                                        unsigned char FAR *window));
Initialize the internal stream state for decompression using inflateBack() calls. The fields zalloc, zfree and opaque in strm must be initialized before the call. If zalloc and zfree are Z_NULL, then the default library- derived memory allocation routines are used. windowBits is the base two logarithm of the window size, in the range 8..15. window is a caller supplied buffer of that size. Except for special applications where it is assured that deflate was used with small window sizes, windowBits must be 15 and a 32K byte window must be supplied to be able to decompress general deflate streams.

See inflateBack() for the usage of these routines.

inflateBackInit will return Z_OK on success, Z_STREAM_ERROR if any of the parameters are invalid, Z_MEM_ERROR if the internal state could not be allocated, or Z_VERSION_ERROR if the version of the library does not match the version of the header file.


typedef unsigned (*in_func) OF((void FAR *,
                                z_const unsigned char FAR * FAR *));
typedef int (*out_func) OF((void FAR *, unsigned char FAR *, unsigned));

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateBack OF((z_streamp strm,
                                    in_func in, void FAR *in_desc,
                                    out_func out, void FAR *out_desc));
inflateBack() does a raw inflate with a single call using a call-back interface for input and output. This is potentially more efficient than inflate() for file i/o applications, in that it avoids copying between the output and the sliding window by simply making the window itself the output buffer. inflate() can be faster on modern CPUs when used with large buffers. inflateBack() trusts the application to not change the output buffer passed by the output function, at least until inflateBack() returns.

inflateBackInit() must be called first to allocate the internal state and to initialize the state with the user-provided window buffer. inflateBack() may then be used multiple times to inflate a complete, raw deflate stream with each call. inflateBackEnd() is then called to free the allocated state.

A raw deflate stream is one with no zlib or gzip header or trailer. This routine would normally be used in a utility that reads zip or gzip files and writes out uncompressed files. The utility would decode the header and process the trailer on its own, hence this routine expects only the raw deflate stream to decompress. This is different from the normal behavior of inflate(), which expects either a zlib or gzip header and trailer around the deflate stream.

inflateBack() uses two subroutines supplied by the caller that are then called by inflateBack() for input and output. inflateBack() calls those routines until it reads a complete deflate stream and writes out all of the uncompressed data, or until it encounters an error. The function's parameters and return types are defined above in the in_func and out_func typedefs. inflateBack() will call in(in_desc, &buf) which should return the number of bytes of provided input, and a pointer to that input in buf. If there is no input available, in() must return zero—buf is ignored in that case—and inflateBack() will return a buffer error. inflateBack() will call out(out_desc, buf, len) to write the uncompressed data buf[0..len-1]. out() should return zero on success, or non-zero on failure. If out() returns non-zero, inflateBack() will return with an error. Neither in() nor out() are permitted to change the contents of the window provided to inflateBackInit(), which is also the buffer that out() uses to write from. The length written by out() will be at most the window size. Any non-zero amount of input may be provided by in().

For convenience, inflateBack() can be provided input on the first call by setting strm->next_in and strm->avail_in. If that input is exhausted, then in() will be called. Therefore strm->next_in must be initialized before calling inflateBack(). If strm->next_in is Z_NULL, then in() will be called immediately for input. If strm->next_in is not Z_NULL, then strm->avail_in must also be initialized, and then if strm->avail_in is not zero, input will initially be taken from strm->next_in[0 .. strm->avail_in - 1].

The in_desc and out_desc parameters of inflateBack() is passed as the first parameter of in() and out() respectively when they are called. These descriptors can be optionally used to pass any information that the caller- supplied in() and out() functions need to do their job.

On return, inflateBack() will set strm->next_in and strm->avail_in to pass back any unused input that was provided by the last in() call. The return values of inflateBack() can be Z_STREAM_END on success, Z_BUF_ERROR if in() or out() returned an error, Z_DATA_ERROR if there was a format error in the deflate stream (in which case strm->msg is set to indicate the nature of the error), or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream was not properly initialized. In the case of Z_BUF_ERROR, an input or output error can be distinguished using strm->next_in which will be Z_NULL only if in() returned an error. If strm->next_in is not Z_NULL, then the Z_BUF_ERROR was due to out() returning non-zero. (in() will always be called before out(), so strm->next_in is assured to be defined if out() returns non-zero.) Note that inflateBack() cannot return Z_OK.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT inflateBackEnd OF((z_streamp strm));
All memory allocated by inflateBackInit() is freed.

inflateBackEnd() returns Z_OK on success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the stream state was inconsistent.


ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT zlibCompileFlags OF((void));
Return flags indicating compile-time options.

Type sizes, two bits each, 00 = 16 bits, 01 = 32, 10 = 64, 11 = other:

Compiler, assembler, and debug options: One-time table building (smaller code, but not thread-safe if true): Library content (indicates missing functionality): Operation variations (changes in library functionality): The sprintf variant used by gzprintf (zero is best): Remainder:

Utility Functions

The following utility functions are implemented on top of the basic stream-oriented functions. To simplify the interface, some default options are assumed (compression level and memory usage, standard memory allocation functions). The source code of these utility functions can easily be modified if you need special options.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT compress OF((Bytef *dest, uLongf *destLen,
                                 const Bytef *source, uLong sourceLen));
Compresses the source buffer into the destination buffer. sourceLen is the byte length of the source buffer. Upon entry, destLen is the total size of the destination buffer, which must be at least the value returned by compressBound(sourceLen). Upon exit, destLen is the actual size of the compressed buffer.

compress returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_BUF_ERROR if there was not enough room in the output buffer.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT compress2 OF((Bytef *dest, uLongf *destLen,
                                  const Bytef *source, uLong sourceLen,
                                  int level));
Compresses the source buffer into the destination buffer. The level parameter has the same meaning as in deflateInit. sourceLen is the byte length of the source buffer. Upon entry, destLen is the total size of the destination buffer, which must be at least the value returned by compressBound(sourceLen). Upon exit, destLen is the actual size of the compressed buffer.

compress2 returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_BUF_ERROR if there was not enough room in the output buffer, Z_STREAM_ERROR if the level parameter is invalid.


ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT compressBound OF((uLong sourceLen));
compressBound() returns an upper bound on the compressed size after compress() or compress2() on sourceLen bytes. It would be used before a compress() or compress2() call to allocate the destination buffer.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT uncompress OF((Bytef *dest, uLongf *destLen,
                                   const Bytef *source, uLong sourceLen));
Decompresses the source buffer into the destination buffer. sourceLen is the byte length of the source buffer. Upon entry, destLen is the total size of the destination buffer, which must be large enough to hold the entire uncompressed data. (The size of the uncompressed data must have been saved previously by the compressor and transmitted to the decompressor by some mechanism outside the scope of this compression library.) Upon exit, destLen is the actual size of the compressed buffer.

uncompress returns Z_OK if success, Z_MEM_ERROR if there was not enough memory, Z_BUF_ERROR if there was not enough room in the output buffer, or Z_DATA_ERROR if the input data was corrupted or incomplete. In the case where there is not enough room, uncompress() will fill the output buffer with the uncompressed data up to that point.

gzip File Access Functions

This library supports reading and writing files in gzip (.gz) format with an interface similar to that of stdio, using the functions that start with "gz". The gzip format is different from the zlib format. gzip is a gzip wrapper, documented in RFC 1952, wrapped around a deflate stream.
typedef struct gzFile_s *gzFile;    /* semi-opaque gzip file descriptor */

ZEXTERN gzFile ZEXPORT gzopen OF((const char *path, const char *mode));
Opens a gzip (.gz) file for reading or writing. The mode parameter is as in fopen ("rb" or "wb") but can also include a compression level ("wb9") or a strategy: 'f' for filtered data as in "wb6f", 'h' for Huffman-only compression as in "wb1h", 'R' for run-length encoding as in "wb1R", or 'F' for fixed code compression as in "wb9F". (See the description of deflateInit2 for more information about the strategy parameter.) 'T' will request transparent writing or appending with no compression and not using the gzip format.

'a' can be used instead of 'w' to request that the gzip stream that will be written be appended to the file. '+' will result in an error, since reading and writing to the same gzip file is not supported. The addition of 'x' when writing will create the file exclusively, which fails if the file already exists. On systems that support it, the addition of 'e' when reading or writing will set the flag to close the file on an execve() call.

These functions, as well as gzip, will read and decode a sequence of gzip streams in a file. The append function of gzopen() can be used to create such a file. (Also see gzflush() for another way to do this.) When appending, gzopen does not test whether the file begins with a gzip stream, nor does it look for the end of the gzip streams to begin appending. gzopen will simply append a gzip stream to the existing file.

gzopen can be used to read a file which is not in gzip format; in this case gzread will directly read from the file without decompression. When reading, this will be detected automatically by looking for the magic two-byte gzip header.

gzopen returns NULL if the file could not be opened, if there was insufficient memory to allocate the gzFile state, or if an invalid mode was specified (an 'r', 'w', or 'a' was not provided, or '+' was provided). errno can be checked to determine if the reason gzopen failed was that the file could not be opened.


ZEXTERN gzFile ZEXPORT gzdopen OF((int fd, const char *mode));
gzdopen() associates a gzFile with the file descriptor fd. File descriptors are obtained from calls like open, dup, creat, pipe or fileno (in the file has been previously opened with fopen). The mode parameter is as in gzopen. The next call of gzclose on the returned gzFile will also close the file descriptor fd, just like fclose(fdopen(fd), mode) closes the file descriptor fd. If you want to keep fd open, use fd = dup(fd_keep); gz = gzdopen(fd, mode);. The duplicated descriptor should be saved to avoid a leak, since gzdopen does not close fd if it fails. If you are using fileno() to get the file descriptor from a FILE *, then you will have to use dup() to avoid double-close()ing the file descriptor. Both gzclose() and fclose() will close the associated file descriptor, so they need to have different file descriptors.

gzdopen returns NULL if there was insufficient memory to allocate the gzFile state, if an invalid mode was specified (an 'r', 'w', or 'a' was not provided, or '+' was provided), or if fd is –1. The file descriptor is not used until the next gz* read, write, seek, or close operation, so gzdopen will not detect if fd is invalid (unless fd is –1).


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzbuffer OF((gzFile file, unsigned size));
Set the internal buffer size used by this library's functions. The default buffer size is 8192 bytes. This function must be called after gzopen() or gzdopen(), and before any other calls that read or write the file. The buffer memory allocation is always deferred to the first read or write. Two buffers are allocated, either both of the specified size when writing, or one of the specified size and the other twice that size when reading. A larger buffer size of, for example, 64K or 128K bytes will noticeably increase the speed of decompression (reading).

The new buffer size also affects the maximum length for gzprintf().

gzbuffer() returns 0 on success, or –1 on failure, such as being called too late.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzsetparams OF((gzFile file, int level, int strategy));
Dynamically update the compression level or strategy. See the description of deflateInit2 for the meaning of these parameters.

gzsetparams returns Z_OK if success, or Z_STREAM_ERROR if the file was not opened for writing.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzread OF((gzFile file, voidp buf, unsigned len));
Reads the given number of uncompressed bytes from the compressed file. If the input file is not in gzip format, gzread copies the given number of bytes into the buffer directly from the file.

After reaching the end of a gzip stream in the input, gzread will continue to read, looking for another gzip stream. Any number of gzip streams may be concatenated in the input file, and will all be decompressed by gzread(). If something other than a gzip stream is encountered after a gzip stream, that remaining trailing garbage is ignored (and no error is returned).

gzread can be used to read a gzip file that is being concurrently written. Upon reaching the end of the input, gzread will return with the available data. If the error code returned by gzerror is Z_OK or Z_BUF_ERROR, then gzclearerr can be used to clear the end of file indicator in order to permit gzread to be tried again. Z_OK indicates that a gzip stream was completed on the last gzread. Z_BUF_ERROR indicates that the input file ended in the middle of a gzip stream. Note that gzread does not return -1 in the event of an incomplete gzip stream. This error is deferred until gzclose(), which will return Z_BUF_ERROR if the last gzread ended in the middle of a gzip stream. Alternatively, gzerror can be used before gzclose to detect this case.

gzread returns the number of uncompressed bytes actually read (0 for end of file, –1 for error).


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzwrite OF((gzFile file,
                                voidpc buf, unsigned len));
Writes the given number of uncompressed bytes into the compressed file. gzwrite returns the number of uncompressed bytes actually written or 0 in case of error.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORTVA gzprintf Z_ARG((gzFile file, const char *format, ...));
Converts, formats, and writes the arguments to the compressed file under control of the format string, as in fprintf. gzprintf returns the number of uncompressed bytes actually written, or 0 in case of error. The number of uncompressed bytes written is limited to 8191, or one less than the buffer size given to gzbuffer(). The caller should assure that this limit is not exceeded. If it is exceeded, then gzprintf() will return return an error (0) with nothing written. In this case, there may also be a buffer overflow with unpredictable consequences, which is possible only if zlib was compiled with the insecure functions sprintf() or vsprintf() because the secure snprintf() or vsnprintf() functions were not available. This can be determined using zlibCompileFlags().

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzputs OF((gzFile file, const char *s));
Writes the given null-terminated string to the compressed file, excluding the terminating null character.

gzputs returns the number of characters written, or –1 in case of error.


ZEXTERN char * ZEXPORT gzgets OF((gzFile file, char *buf, int len));
Reads bytes from the compressed file until len-1 characters are read, or a newline character is read and transferred to buf, or an end-of-file condition is encountered. If any characters are read or if len == 1, the string is terminated with a null character. If no characters are read due to an end-of-file or len < 1, then the buffer is left untouched.

gzgets returns buf which is a null-terminated string, or it returns NULL for end-of-file or in case of error. If there was an error, the contents at buf are indeterminate.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzputc OF((gzFile file, int c));
Writes c, converted to an unsigned char, into the compressed file. gzputc returns the value that was written, or –1 in case of error.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzgetc OF((gzFile file));
Reads one byte from the compressed file. gzgetc returns this byte or –1 in case of end of file or error. This is implemented as a macro for speed. As such, it does not do all of the checking the other functions do. I.e. it does not check to see if file is NULL, nor whether the structure file points to has been clobbered or not.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzungetc OF((int c, gzFile file));
Push one character back onto the stream to be read as the first character on the next read. At least one character of push-back is allowed. gzungetc() returns the character pushed, or –1 on failure. gzungetc() will fail if c is –1, and may fail if a character has been pushed but not read yet. If gzungetc is used immediately after gzopen or gzdopen, at least the output buffer size of pushed characters is allowed. (See gzbuffer above.) The pushed character will be discarded if the stream is repositioned with gzseek() or gzrewind().

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzflush OF((gzFile file, int flush));
Flushes all pending output into the compressed file. The parameter flush is as in the deflate() function. The return value is the zlib error number (see function gzerror below). gzflush is only permitted when writing.

If the flush parameter is Z_FINISH, the remaining data is written and the gzip stream is completed in the output. If gzwrite() is called again, a new gzip stream will be started in the output. gzread() is able to read such concatented gzip streams.

gzflush should be called only when strictly necessary because it will degrade compression if called too often.


ZEXTERN z_off_t ZEXPORT gzseek OF((gzFile file,
                                   z_off_t offset, int whence));
Sets the starting position for the next gzread or gzwrite on the given compressed file. The offset represents a number of bytes in the uncompressed data stream. The whence parameter is defined as in lseek(2); the value SEEK_END is not supported.

If the file is opened for reading, this function is emulated but can be extremely slow. If the file is opened for writing, only forward seeks are supported; gzseek then compresses a sequence of zeroes up to the new starting position.

gzseek returns the resulting offset location as measured in bytes from the beginning of the uncompressed stream, or –1 in case of error, in particular if the file is opened for writing and the new starting position would be before the current position.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzrewind OF((gzFile file));
Rewinds the given file. This function is supported only for reading.

gzrewind(file) is equivalent to (int)gzseek(file, 0L, SEEK_SET)


ZEXTERN z_off_t ZEXPORT gztell OF((gzFile file));
Returns the starting position for the next gzread or gzwrite on the given compressed file. This position represents a number of bytes in the uncompressed data stream, and is zero when starting, even if appending or reading a gzip stream from the middle of a file using gzdopen().

gztell(file) is equivalent to gzseek(file, 0L, SEEK_CUR)


ZEXTERN z_off_t ZEXPORT gzoffset OF((gzFile file));
Returns the current offset in the file being read or written. This offset includes the count of bytes that precede the gzip stream, for example when appending or when using gzdopen() for reading. When reading, the offset does not include as yet unused buffered input. This information can be used for a progress indicator. On error, gzoffset() returns –1.

ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzeof OF((gzFile file));
Returns true (1) if the end-of-file indicator has been set while reading, false (0) otherwise. Note that the end-of-file indicator is set only if the read tried to go past the end of the input, but came up short. Therefore, just like feof(), gzeof() may return false even if there is no more data to read, in the event that the last read request was for the exact number of bytes remaining in the input file. This will happen if the input file size is an exact multiple of the buffer size.

If gzeof() returns true, then the read functions will return no more data, unless the end-of-file indicator is reset by gzclearerr() and the input file has grown since the previous end of file was detected.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzdirect OF((gzFile file));
Returns true (1) if file is being copied directly while reading, or false (0) if file is a gzip stream being decompressed.

If the input file is empty, gzdirect() will return true, since the input does not contain a gzip stream.

If gzdirect() is used immediately after gzopen() or gzdopen() it will cause buffers to be allocated to allow reading the file to determine if it is a gzip file. Therefore if gzbuffer() is used, it should be called before gzdirect().

When writing, gzdirect() returns true (1) if transparent writing was requested ("wT" for the gzopen() mode), or false (0) otherwise. (Note: gzdirect() is not needed when writing. Transparent writing must be explicitly requested, so the application already knows the answer. When linking statically, using gzdirect() will include all of the zlib code for gzip file reading and decompression, which may not be desired.)


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzclose OF((gzFile file));
Flushes all pending output if necessary, closes the compressed file and deallocates the (de)compression state. Note that once file is closed, you cannot call gzerror with file, since its structures have been deallocated. gzclose must not be called more than once on the same file, just as free must not be called more than once on the same allocation.

gzclose will return Z_STREAM_ERROR if file is not valid, Z_ERRNO on a file operation error, Z_MEM_ERROR if out of memory, Z_BUF_ERROR if the last read ended in the middle of a gzip stream, or Z_OK on success.


ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzclose_r OF((gzFile file));
ZEXTERN int ZEXPORT gzclose_w OF((gzFile file));
Same as gzclose(), but gzclose_r() is only for use when reading, and gzclose_w() is only for use when writing or appending. The advantage to using these instead of gzclose() is that they avoid linking in zlib compression or decompression code that is not used when only reading or only writing respectively. If gzclose() is used, then both compression and decompression code will be included the application when linking to a static zlib library.

ZEXTERN const char * ZEXPORT gzerror OF((gzFile file, int *errnum));
Returns the error message for the last error which occurred on the given compressed file. errnum is set to zlib error number. If an error occurred in the file system and not in the compression library, errnum is set to Z_ERRNO and the application may consult errno to get the exact error code.

The application must not modify the returned string. Future calls to this function may invalidate the previously returned string. If file is closed, then the string previously returned by gzerror will no longer be available.

gzerror() should be used to distinguish errors from end-of-file for those functions above that do not distinguish those cases in their return values.


ZEXTERN void ZEXPORT gzclearerr OF((gzFile file));
Clears the error and end-of-file flags for file. This is analogous to the clearerr() function in stdio. This is useful for continuing to read a gzip file that is being written concurrently.

Checksum Functions

These functions are not related to compression but are exported anyway because they might be useful in applications using the compression library.

ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT adler32 OF((uLong adler, const Bytef *buf, uInt len));
Update a running Adler-32 checksum with the bytes buf[0..len-1] and return the updated checksum. If buf is NULL, this function returns the required initial value for the checksum.

An Adler-32 checksum is almost as reliable as a CRC32 but can be computed much faster.

Usage example:

     uLong adler = adler32(0L, Z_NULL, 0);

     while (read_buffer(buffer, length) != EOF) {
       adler = adler32(adler, buffer, length);
     }
     if (adler != original_adler) error();

ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT adler32_combine OF((uLong adler1, uLong adler2,
                                          z_off_t len2));
Combine two Adler-32 checksums into one. For two sequences of bytes, seq1 and seq2 with lengths len1 and len2, Adler-32 checksums were calculated for each, adler1 and adler2. adler32_combine() returns the Adler-32 checksum of seq1 and seq2 concatenated, requiring only adler1, adler2, and len2. Note that the z_off_t type (like off_t) is a signed integer. If len2 is negative, the result has no meaning or utility.

ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT crc32 OF((uLong crc, const Bytef *buf, uInt len));
Update a running CRC-32 with the bytes buf[0..len-1] and return the updated CRC-32. If buf is Z_NULL, this function returns the required initial value for the crc. Pre- and post-conditioning (one's complement) is performed within this function so it shouldn't be done by the application.

Usage example:

     uLong crc = crc32(0L, Z_NULL, 0);

     while (read_buffer(buffer, length) != EOF) {
       crc = crc32(crc, buffer, length);
     }
     if (crc != original_crc) error();

ZEXTERN uLong ZEXPORT crc32_combine OF((uLong crc1, uLong crc2, z_off_t len2));
Combine two CRC-32 check values into one. For two sequences of bytes, seq1 and seq2 with lengths len1 and len2, CRC-32 check values were calculated for each, crc1 and crc2. crc32_combine() returns the CRC-32 check value of seq1 and seq2 concatenated, requiring only crc1, crc2, and len2.

Undocumented Functions

ZEXTERN const char   * ZEXPORT zError           OF((int));
ZEXTERN int            ZEXPORT inflateSyncPoint OF((z_streamp z));
ZEXTERN const z_crc_t FAR * ZEXPORT get_crc_table    OF((void));
ZEXTERN int            ZEXPORT inflateUndermine OF((z_streamp, int));
ZEXTERN int            ZEXPORT inflateResetKeep OF((z_streamp));
ZEXTERN int            ZEXPORT deflateResetKeep OF((z_streamp));
#if defined(_WIN32) && !defined(Z_SOLO)
ZEXTERN gzFile         ZEXPORT gzopen_w OF((const wchar_t *path,
                                            const char *mode));
#endif
#if defined(STDC) || defined(Z_HAVE_STDARG_H)
#  ifndef Z_SOLO
ZEXTERN int            ZEXPORTVA gzvprintf Z_ARG((gzFile file,
                                                  const char *format,
                                                  va_list va));
#  endif
#endif